# Kpi's in Higher Education

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Business Question: Business Question: How well do stakeholders (teaching staff, undergraduate, and graduate students) understand the institution's mission and objectives?

Definition: The average rating of awareness of the institution’s mission and objectives among teaching staff, undergraduate, and graduate students, measured on a five-point scale through an annual survey.

Description: This KPI assesses how effectively the institution communicates its mission and objectives to key stakeholders, such as faculty and students. By tracking awareness levels, the institution can identify gaps in communication and take steps to improve alignment with its goals. Higher awareness ratings typically indicate better stakeholder engagement and clarity of institutional goals.

Formula: Stakeholder's Awareness Rating = (Sum of Awareness Ratings for All Respondents) / (Total Number of Respondents)

Calculation Example: If 200 teaching staff, 500 undergraduate students, and 300 graduate students participate in the survey, and the total sum of their ratings is 4,000, then Stakeholder's Awareness Rating = 4,000 / 1,000 = 4.0 (on a five-point scale).

Business Question: How do final-year students rate the overall quality of their learning experiences at the institution?

Definition: The average rating given by final-year students on the overall quality of their learning experiences, measured on a five-point scale through an annual survey.

Description: This KPI measures student satisfaction with the overall quality of their education at the institution. It provides insights into how effectively the institution is delivering on its educational promises. A higher rating suggests that students are generally satisfied with their learning experience, while a lower rating may indicate areas that need improvement, such as curriculum design, teaching quality, and academic support.

Formula: Students' Overall Evaluation = (Sum of Overall Quality Ratings from Final-Year Students) / (Total Number of Final-Year Students Surveyed)

Calculation Example: If 300 final-year students participate in the survey, and the total sum of their ratings is 1,200, then Students' Overall Evaluation = 1,200 / 300 = 4.0 (on a five-point scale).

Business Question: How do students rate the overall quality of their courses?

Definition: The average rating provided by students on the overall quality of the courses they have taken, measured on a five-point scale through course evaluations.

Description: This KPI evaluates the effectiveness and quality of the courses offered by the institution as perceived by the students. By tracking this rating, the institution can identify which courses are meeting student expectations and which may need improvement. A higher average rating indicates that students find the courses valuable and well-structured, while a lower rating could highlight concerns related to course content, delivery, or assessment.

Formula: Students' Overall Rating = (Sum of Course Quality Ratings from All Students) / (Total Number of Students Surveyed)

Calculation Example: If 500 students participate in the course evaluation survey, and the total sum of their ratings is 2,250, then Students' Overall Rating = 2,250 / 500 = 4.5 (on a five-point scale).

Business Question: What proportion of the institution's courses had student evaluations conducted during the year?

Definition: The percentage of courses offered by the institution that had formal student evaluations conducted during the academic year.

Description: This KPI measures the extent to which the institution is gathering student feedback across its course offerings. Conducting evaluations is vital for maintaining and improving the quality of education by allowing students to provide input on their learning experiences. A higher proportion indicates that the institution is committed to collecting comprehensive feedback, while a lower proportion suggests that opportunities for improvement might be overlooked in certain courses.

Formula: Proportion of Courses with Evaluations = (Number of Courses with Student Evaluations Conducted / Total Number of Courses Offered) * 100

Calculation Example: If 400 out of 500 courses offered by the institution had student evaluations conducted during the year, then Proportion of Courses with Evaluations = (400 / 500) * 100 = 80%.

Business Question: What proportion of the teaching staff at the institution have verified doctoral qualifications?

Definition: The percentage of teaching staff who hold and have verified their doctoral qualifications.

Description: This KPI measures the academic qualifications of the teaching staff by identifying the proportion of those who possess verified doctoral degrees. It is a key indicator of the institution’s academic strength and the expertise of its faculty. A higher proportion suggests that the institution is staffed by highly qualified educators, which can enhance the quality of teaching and research. Conversely, a lower proportion may indicate a need to recruit or develop more advanced academic qualifications among the staff.

Formula: Proportion of Teaching Staff with Doctoral Qualifications = (Number of Teaching Staff with Verified Doctoral Qualifications / Total Number of Teaching Staff) * 100

Calculation Example: If the institution has 200 teaching staff, and 150 of them have verified doctoral qualifications, then Proportion of Teaching Staff with Doctoral Qualifications = (150 / 200) * 100 = 75%.

Business Question: What percentage of students entering programs successfully complete their first year of study?

Definition: The percentage of students who enroll in a program and successfully complete their first year of study without dropping out or leaving the program.

Description: This KPI measures the institution's ability to retain students through the first year of their academic programs. It is a key indicator of student satisfaction, program effectiveness, and institutional support. A high retention rate suggests that students are successfully transitioning into higher education and finding value in their program. A lower retention rate may highlight areas where the institution could improve student support, curriculum design, or overall student experience.

Formula: Retention Rate = (Number of Students Who Completed First Year / Total Number of Students Who Enrolled in First Year) * 100

Calculation Example: If 800 students enrolled in the first year of a program and 700 of them successfully completed their first year, then Retention Rate = (700 / 800) * 100 = 87.5%.

Business Question: What proportion of students entering undergraduate programs complete their studies within the minimum expected time?

Definition: The percentage of students who enroll in undergraduate programs and successfully complete their studies within the standard minimum time frame, typically the scheduled duration of the program.

Description: This KPI tracks the efficiency and effectiveness of undergraduate programs by measuring how many students complete their degrees within the minimum expected time. A high completion rate suggests that the program is well-structured and that students are progressing through it without significant delays. A lower completion rate may indicate challenges such as curriculum difficulty, insufficient support, or personal obstacles faced by students.

Formula: Completion Rate = (Number of Students Who Completed the Program in Minimum Time / Total Number of Students Who Enrolled) * 100

Calculation Example: If 500 students enrolled in an undergraduate program and 350 of them completed it within the minimum time (e.g., 4 years), then Completion Rate = (350 / 500) * 100 = 70%.

Business Question: What is the proportion of book titles available in the library compared to the total number of students?

Definition: The ratio of the total number of book titles held in the library to the total number of students enrolled at the institution.

Description: This KPI measures the availability of library resources relative to the student population. A higher proportion indicates better access to a wide range of academic resources, supporting students' learning and research needs. A lower proportion may suggest that the library's collection is insufficient to adequately serve the student body.

Formula: Proportion of Book Titles to Students = (Total Number of Book Titles in the Library / Total Number of Students) * 100

Calculation Example: If the library holds 50,000 book titles and there are 10,000 students enrolled, then Proportion of Book Titles to Students = (50,000 / 10,000) * 100 = 500%.

Business Question: How do stakeholders (students, faculty, and staff) rate the adequacy of library services?

Definition: The average rating given by stakeholders on the adequacy and quality of library services, measured on a five-point scale through surveys.

Description: This KPI assesses the satisfaction of stakeholders with the services provided by the library, including access to resources, availability of study spaces, and the effectiveness of support services. A higher average rating indicates that stakeholders find the library services sufficient and beneficial to their academic and research needs. A lower rating may suggest areas for improvement in service delivery, resources, or accessibility.

Formula: Stakeholder Evaluation of Library Services = (Sum of Stakeholder Ratings on Library Services) / (Total Number of Stakeholders Surveyed)

Calculation Example: If 600 stakeholders participate in the survey and the total sum of their ratings is 2,400, then Stakeholder Evaluation of Library Services = 2,400 / 600 = 4.0 (on a five-point scale).

Business Question: What is the average number of students in each class at the institution?

Definition: The average number of students enrolled in a class across all courses offered by the institution.

Description: This KPI measures the average class size, providing insights into the student-to-teacher ratio and the learning environment. A smaller average class size may indicate more personalized attention from instructors, while a larger class size could suggest a need for more resources or faculty. Monitoring this KPI helps institutions balance enrollment and instructional resources to maintain effective learning conditions.

Formula: Average Number of Students per Class = Total Number of Students Enrolled / Total Number of Classes

Calculation Example: If there are 5,000 students enrolled across 250 classes, then Average Number of Students per Class = 5,000 / 250 = 20 students per class.

Business Question: How well are students performing in professional and/or national examinations?

Definition: The percentage of students who pass professional and/or national examinations required for certification or licensure in their field of study.

Description: This KPI measures the success of students in passing key professional or national examinations that are often required for career entry or advancement in their chosen field. A higher pass rate indicates that the institution is effectively preparing students for these examinations, while a lower pass rate may highlight areas where the curriculum or support services could be improved to better equip students for success.

Formula: Students' Performance in Examinations = (Number of Students Who Passed the Examination / Total Number of Students Who Took the Examination) * 100

Calculation Example: If 500 students take a national examination and 450 of them pass, then Students' Performance in Examinations = (450 / 500) * 100 = 90%.

Business Question: What proportion of students are either employed or enrolled in postgraduate programs within the first year after graduation?

Definition: The percentage of students who, within one year of graduating, are either employed in a job related to their field of study or have enrolled in a postgraduate program.

Description: This KPI measures the success of the institution's graduates in transitioning to the next phase of their careers, whether through employment or further study. A higher proportion indicates that the institution is effectively preparing students for the job market or for advanced academic opportunities. Tracking this KPI helps institutions understand the career readiness of their graduates and the alignment of academic programs with market demands.

Formula: Proportion of Students Employed or Enrolled in Postgraduate Programs = (Number of Graduates Employed or Enrolled in Postgraduate Programs Within One Year / Total Number of Graduates) * 100

Calculation Example: If 1,000 students graduate and 800 of them are either employed or enrolled in postgraduate programs within one year, then Proportion of Students Employed or Enrolled in Postgraduate Programs = (800 / 1,000) * 100 = 80%.

Business Question: How do students rate the adequacy of academic and career counselling services at the institution?

Definition: The average rating given by students on the adequacy and effectiveness of academic and career counselling services, measured on a five-point scale through student surveys.

Description: This KPI evaluates student satisfaction with the academic and career counselling services provided by the institution. It is an essential indicator of how well the institution supports students in their academic journey and career planning. A higher rating suggests that students find the counselling services helpful and effective in guiding their academic decisions and career paths. A lower rating may indicate a need for improvement in these support services.

Formula: Student Evaluation of Counselling = (Sum of Student Ratings on Counselling Services) / (Total Number of Students Surveyed)

Calculation Example: If 400 students participate in the survey and the total sum of their ratings is 1,600, then Student Evaluation of Counselling = 1,600 / 400 = 4.0 (on a five-point scale).

Business Question: How do employers rate the proficiency of graduates from the institution's programs?

Definition: The average rating provided by employers on the proficiency and job readiness of graduates, measured on a scale (e.g., five-point scale) through employer surveys.

Description: This KPI assesses how well the institution is preparing its graduates for the workforce, based on feedback from employers. It reflects the perceived skill level, knowledge, and work-readiness of the graduates. A higher rating suggests that graduates are meeting industry standards and employer expectations, while a lower rating may indicate areas where the institution needs to enhance its programs to better equip students for their professional careers.

Formula: Employers' Evaluation of Graduates' Proficiency = (Sum of Employer Ratings of Graduates' Proficiency) / (Total Number of Employers Surveyed)

Calculation Example: If 50 employers participate in the survey and the total sum of their ratings is 225, then Employers' Evaluation of Graduates' Proficiency = 225 / 50 = 4.5 (on a five-point scale).

Business Question: How do students rate the overall quality of the services provided by the institution?

Definition: The average rating given by students on the overall quality of services provided by the institution, measured on a five-point scale through student surveys.

Description: This KPI reflects students' satisfaction with various services offered by the institution, such as academic support, facilities, counseling, and extracurricular activities. A higher rating suggests that students are satisfied with the services provided, while a lower rating may indicate the need for improvement in specific areas. Tracking this KPI helps institutions understand students' perceptions and prioritize service enhancements.

Formula: Average Overall Students’ Evaluation of Services = (Sum of Students’ Ratings on Services) / (Total Number of Students Surveyed)

Calculation Example: If 1,000 students participate in the survey and the total sum of their ratings is 4,000, then Average Overall Students’ Evaluation of Services = 4,000 / 1,000 = 4.0 (on a five-point scale).

Business Question: What proportion of teaching staff left the institution in the past year for reasons other than age retirement?

Definition: The percentage of teaching staff who left the institution in the past year for reasons other than age retirement, such as job change, personal reasons, or other voluntary/involuntary separations.

Description: This KPI measures the turnover rate of teaching staff excluding retirements due to age. A high proportion may indicate issues with job satisfaction, working conditions, or institutional culture, while a low proportion suggests stability within the teaching staff. Monitoring this KPI helps institutions identify potential retention challenges and improve staff retention strategies.

Formula: Proportion of Teaching Staff Leaving = (Number of Teaching Staff Leaving for Reasons Other Than Retirement / Total Number of Teaching Staff) * 100

Calculation Example: If 30 teaching staff members left the institution for reasons other than age retirement out of 600 total teaching staff, then Proportion of Teaching Staff Leaving = (30 / 600) * 100 = 5%.

Business Question: What proportion of teaching staff participated in professional development activities during the past year?

Definition: The percentage of teaching staff who engaged in professional development activities, such as workshops, conferences, training, or certifications, during the past year.

Description: This KPI measures the commitment of the institution to fostering continuous improvement and skill development among teaching staff. A higher proportion indicates that the institution encourages and supports professional growth, which can lead to better teaching quality and innovation in the classroom. A lower proportion may suggest a need for more focus on professional development initiatives.

Formula: Proportion of Teaching Staff Participating in Professional Development = (Number of Teaching Staff Participating in Professional Development Activities / Total Number of Teaching Staff) * 100

Calculation Example: If 150 out of 500 teaching staff members participated in professional development activities during the past year, then Proportion of Teaching Staff Participating = (150 / 500) * 100 = 30%.

Business Question: How many refereed publications did each full-time equivalent member of teaching staff produce in the previous year?

Definition: Number of refereed publications refers to articles published in peer-reviewed journals, based on the formula in the Higher Council Bylaw, excluding conference presentations. This KPI is normalized per full-time equivalent (FTE) teaching staff member to account for part-time and varying workload distributions.

Description:*Importance:* This KPI measures the research productivity of the teaching staff, indicating the institution's contribution to academic knowledge and its commitment to research excellence. A higher number suggests a strong research culture and active faculty engagement in scholarly activities.*Implications:* This KPI can influence institutional reputation, funding opportunities, and attract high-quality faculty and students. Tracking this metric can also help in identifying areas needing support to boost research output.

Formula:

Number of Refereed Publications per FTE Teaching Staff=Total Number of Refereed Publications in the Previous YearTotal Full-Time Equivalent Teaching Staff\text{Number of Refereed Publications per FTE Teaching Staff} = \frac{\text{Total Number of Refereed Publications in the Previous Year}}{\text{Total Full-Time Equivalent Teaching Staff}}Number of Refereed Publications per FTE Teaching Staff=Total Full-Time Equivalent Teaching StaffTotal Number of Refereed Publications in the Previous Year

Calculation Example:*Scenario:* If the total number of refereed publications in the previous year is 75 and the total full-time equivalent teaching staff is 50: Number of Refereed Publications per FTE Teaching Staff=7550=1.5\text{Number of Refereed Publications per FTE Teaching Staff} = \frac{75}{50} = 1.5Number of Refereed Publications per FTE Teaching Staff=5075=1.5

Business Question: What proportion of full-time teaching staff members had at least one refereed publication during the previous year?

Definition:

Proportion of full-time teaching staff refers to the percentage of full-time faculty members who authored at least one refereed publication in peer-reviewed journals during the previous year.

Description:*Importance:* This KPI reflects the research engagement of the faculty. A higher proportion suggests that a significant portion of the teaching staff is actively contributing to academic research, which can enhance the institution’s reputation and academic standing.*Implications:* A lower proportion might indicate challenges in research productivity or a need for better support and resources for faculty research. This KPI helps institutions assess the overall research culture and can guide efforts to foster greater scholarly activity.

Formula:

Proportion of Teaching Staff with Refereed Publication=(Number of Full-Time Teaching Staff with at Least One Refereed PublicationTotal Number of Full-Time Teaching Staff)×100\text{Proportion of Teaching Staff with Refereed Publication} = \left(\frac{\text{Number of Full-Time Teaching Staff with at Least One Refereed Publication}}{\text{Total Number of Full-Time Teaching Staff}}\right) \times 100Proportion of Teaching Staff with Refereed Publication=(Total Number of Full-Time Teaching StaffNumber of Full-Time Teaching Staff with at Least One Refereed Publication)×100

Calculation Example:*Scenario:* If there are 200 full-time teaching staff members, and 80 of them had at least one refereed publication during the previous year: Proportion=(80200)×100=40%\text{Proportion} = \left(\frac{80}{200}\right) \times 100 = 40\%Proportion=(20080)×100=40%

Business Question: How many citations did each full-time equivalent member of the teaching staff receive in refereed journals during the previous year?

Definition:

Number of citations refers to the total count of times publications by teaching staff have been cited in refereed journals during the previous year. This KPI is normalized per full-time equivalent (FTE) teaching staff member to provide a consistent measure that accounts for varying levels of employment.

Description:*Importance:* This KPI measures the impact and recognition of the institution's research contributions. A higher number of citations indicates that the research produced by the teaching staff is being widely acknowledged and utilized by the academic community, which enhances the institution's scholarly reputation.*Implications:* Monitoring this KPI helps in understanding the influence of the institution’s research output and can guide strategic decisions to support and increase impactful research. A low citation rate may signal a need for improving research quality or visibility.

Formula:

Number of Citations per FTE Teaching Staff=Total Number of Citations in Refereed Journals in the Previous YearTotal Full-Time Equivalent Teaching Staff\text{Number of Citations per FTE Teaching Staff} = \frac{\text{Total Number of Citations in Refereed Journals in the Previous Year}}{\text{Total Full-Time Equivalent Teaching Staff}}Number of Citations per FTE Teaching Staff=Total Full-Time Equivalent Teaching StaffTotal Number of Citations in Refereed Journals in the Previous Year

Calculation Example:*Scenario:* If there were 300 citations in refereed journals in the previous year and the total full-time equivalent teaching staff is 50: Number of Citations per FTE Teaching Staff=30050=6\text{Number of Citations per FTE Teaching Staff} = \frac{300}{50} = 6Number of Citations per FTE Teaching Staff=50300=6

Business Question: How many papers or reports did each full-time equivalent member of the teaching staff present at academic conferences during the past year?

Definition:

Number of papers or reports presented refers to the total count of academic papers or reports delivered by teaching staff at conferences over the past year. This KPI is normalized per full-time equivalent (FTE) teaching staff member to provide a consistent measure, accounting for part-time staff and varying workloads.

Description:*Importance: *This KPI measures the engagement and visibility of the teaching staff in the academic community. A higher number indicates active participation in knowledge sharing and professional networking, which can lead to increased collaboration opportunities and enhanced institutional reputation.*Implications:* Monitoring this KPI helps the institution assess its faculty's involvement in academic discourse and their contribution to the broader academic field. A low number may suggest a need for more support or encouragement for conference participation.

Formula:

Number of Papers or Reports per FTE Teaching Staff=Total Number of Papers or Reports Presented at Conferences During the Past YearTotal Full-Time Equivalent Teaching Staff\text{Number of Papers or Reports per FTE Teaching Staff} = \frac{\text{Total Number of Papers or Reports Presented at Conferences During the Past Year}}{\text{Total Full-Time Equivalent Teaching Staff}}Number of Papers or Reports per FTE Teaching Staff=Total Full-Time Equivalent Teaching StaffTotal Number of Papers or Reports Presented at Conferences During the Past Year

Calculation Example:*Scenario: *If 45 papers or reports were presented at conferences in the past year and the total full-time equivalent teaching staff is 30: Number of Papers or Reports per FTE Teaching Staff=4530=1.5\text{Number of Papers or Reports per FTE Teaching Staff} = \frac{45}{30} = 1.5Number of Papers or Reports per FTE Teaching Staff=3045=1.5

Business Question: What is the distribution percentage of teaching staff across different academic ranks (Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor, Lecturers, Demonstrators)?

Definition:

Percentage of teaching staff distribution refers to the proportion of teaching staff within each academic rank category (Professor, Associate Professor, Assistant Professor, Lecturers, Demonstrators) relative to the total teaching staff.

Description:*Importance: *This KPI provides insight into the composition and structure of the teaching staff within an institution. Understanding the distribution across academic ranks can help in workforce planning, resource allocation, and career development strategies. It also indicates the balance of experience and mentorship available within the institution.*Implications:* A skewed distribution may suggest potential challenges in succession planning, academic leadership, or mentoring opportunities. Regular monitoring of this KPI helps in maintaining a balanced and sustainable academic workforce.

Formula:

Percentage of Teaching Staff Distribution by Rank=(Number of Teaching Staff in a Specific RankTotal Number of Teaching Staff)×100\text{Percentage of Teaching Staff Distribution by Rank} = \left(\frac{\text{Number of Teaching Staff in a Specific Rank}}{\text{Total Number of Teaching Staff}}\right) \times 100Percentage of Teaching Staff Distribution by Rank=(Total Number of Teaching StaffNumber of Teaching Staff in a Specific Rank)×100

Calculation Example:*Scenario: *If there are 100 Professors, 150 Associate Professors, 200 Assistant Professors, 250 Lecturers, and 50 Demonstrators, and the total teaching staff is 750:*Percentage of Professors:* 100750×100=13.33%\frac{100}{750} \times 100 = 13.33\%750100×100=13.33%*Percentage of Associate Professors:* 150750×100=20%\frac{150}{750} \times 100 = 20\%750150×100=20%*Percentage of Assistant Professors:* 200750×100=26.67%\frac{200}{750} \times 100 = 26.67\%750200×100=26.67%*Percentage of Lecturers:* 250750×100=33.33%\frac{250}{750} \times 100 = 33.33\%750250×100=33.33%*Percentage of Demonstrators:* 50750×100=6.67%\frac{50}{750} \times 100 = 6.67\%75050×100=6.67%

Business Question: What proportion of full-time teaching and other staff are actively engaged in community service activities?

Definition:

Proportion of full-time teaching and other staff actively engaged refers to the percentage of full-time employees, including both teaching and non-teaching staff, who participate in community service activities. These activities can include volunteering, outreach programs, public education efforts, or other forms of service that benefit the community.

Description:*Importance:* This KPI measures the institution’s commitment to social responsibility and its staff's involvement in giving back to the community. A higher proportion indicates a strong culture of civic engagement and reflects positively on the institution’s values and public image.*Implications:* Regular monitoring of this KPI can help the institution evaluate the effectiveness of its community service initiatives and identify opportunities to encourage greater participation. A lower proportion may suggest the need for more structured or promoted opportunities for staff to engage in community service.

Formula:

Proportion of Staff Engaged in Community Service=(Number of Full-Time Staff Engaged in Community ServiceTotal Number of Full-Time Staff)×100\text{Proportion of Staff Engaged in Community Service} = \left(\frac{\text{Number of Full-Time Staff Engaged in Community Service}}{\text{Total Number of Full-Time Staff}}\right) \times 100Proportion of Staff Engaged in Community Service=(Total Number of Full-Time StaffNumber of Full-Time Staff Engaged in Community Service)×100

Calculation Example:*Scenario:* If there are 500 full-time staff members, and 150 of them are actively engaged in community service activities: Proportion=(150500)×100=30%\text{Proportion} = \left(\frac{150}{500}\right) \times 100 = 30\%Proportion=(500150)×100=30%